underwater digital camera: capturing moments underwater

Memories are created just about anywhere. And when I say anywhere, I mean that memories are

even created underwater – so the creation of underwater digital camera.

An underwater digital camera is not just used to capture underwater memories; some

professional marine photographers also use underwater digital cameras in their business.

Even marine biologists and scientists use underwater digital cameras to capture marine life

and thus be able to study the life and properties of the marine life. But I think it is

safe to assume that you, my reader, are neither a marine scientist nor a professional

photographer. Like me, you are just some photo junkie who wants to capture underwater

moments and just cant figure out how without ruining your cameras.

Please listen to me when I say that even waterproof cameras cannot withstand underwater

photography. To be waterproof is to resist the water in certain levels, submerging in under

the water to get the perfect shot is like throwing it out of the window expecting a pick-up

truck to pass by and run over it.

Now if you’re really serious about using an underwater digital camera to capture those

wacky and funny moments underwater, I suggest that you buy specialty cameras.

There are rarely underwater digital cameras, as cameras are electronic and cannot withstand

water and water pressure. The closest electronics has ever got to producing underwater

digital cameras are producing underwater casings for digital cameras. These casing will

turn your conventional digital camera into an underwater digital camera.

If you are shooting with your underwater digital camera, you need to take note of a few

things to help you come up with the best images underwater.

Remember that as you farther under water, light diffuses. This means that your underwater

digital camera will produce images darker than those images you took while on land – this

is because of the light diffusion the red spectrum seems darker. To avoid this, use white

balance come up with natural colors. Also, pictures taken underwater will come up larger

than pictures taken on land with the same zoom effect. Be sure to check your underwater

digital camera’s viewfinder to check the right picture angle and size that you want.

An underwater digital camera with its built-in flash will produce marine show phenomenon.

It is a phenomenon wherein your pictures come out as blurry and with white particles

floating above it, to avoid this phenomenon it is advisable to use external flash for your

underwater digital camera.

Before using your underwater digital camera, submerge the camera in the water first for

several seconds then check if there are leaks through the case. Make sure that no grain of

sand or piece of hair is stuck in between the seal to make sure that water will not

permeate the case and thus wet your camera in the process. It is also advisable to put

silica gel or two inside the case of your underwater digital camera as long as they don’t

disturb the camera’s operation. (Silica gel will keep the moisture from forming inside your

camera case.)

Most underwater digital cameras come with optional lenses. Don’t be afraid to add these

lenses to your underwater digital camera kit. Macro lenses will help you capture small

things without getting too close and startling your subject.

Also, remember to always wash of salt when you’ve used it under salt water. If the salts

are not washed off, in time they will crystallize; act as sands and cause leaks for your

camera case. In cases when sands seem to get into the case, they are better washed off with

streams of water.

Advantages Of Diesel Engines

If you’ve owned a diesel powered vehicle in the
past or if you own one now, you no doubt appreciate
the qualities this engine provides you with. More
torque, better fuel economy, and easier maintenance
are but a few of the attributes of owning diesel
powered vehicles.

However, there are some motorists that still
complain about the engine’s weak power, especially
when accelerating from a full stop. What you
may not be aware of is the fact that a diesel
engine can be tweaked to give more power without
harming the fuel economy.

Diesel engines use air compression to create
combustion versus the fuel/air mixture that is
required by gas engines. This attribute means
that diesel engines don’t require spark plugs
and therefore don’t need to be tuned up.

Diesel fuel has a much high fuel density than
gas, which results in fuel economy increases
of 20 – 30% over gasoline powered vehicles.

Diesel engines are also cheaper to maintain as
they have less parts than that of a gasoline
powered engine. The life span of a diesel
engine is also much longer.

If you’re looking for torque, for pulling a
boat or other equipment, then the diesel
engine has the supreme advantage. Diesel
engines are surely slower, especially when
starting from a dead stop, although when you
climb hills or go over bridges, the diesel
engine is surely up to the task.

With trucks, diesel is normally the leader
over gas engines in terms of performance and
miles per gallon. Diesel trucks will get
more miles than gas trucks, and the price for
diesel is a bit cheaper than gas these days.
And with gas prices on the rise, diesel will
continue to dominate for a long time to come.

Backhoe Loader

Also referred to as a loader backhoe, the backhoe
loader is an engineering and excavation vehicle that
consists of a tractor, front shovel and bucket and
a small backhoe in the rear end. Due to the small
size and versatility, backhoe loaders are common
with small construction projects and excavation type
work.

Originally invented in Burlington Iowa back in 1857,
the backhoe loader is the most common variation of
the classic farm tractor. As the name implies, it
has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe
attachment on the back.

Anytime the loader and backhoe are attached it is
never referred to as a tractor, as it is not normally
used for towing and doesn’t normally have a PTO.
When the backhoe is permanently attached, the
machine will normally have a seat that can swivel
to the rear to face the backhoe controls. Any type
of removable backhoe attachments will normally have
a seperate seat on the attachment itself.

Backhoe loaders are common and can be used for many
tasks, which include construction, light transportation
of materials, powering building equipment, digging
holes and excavating, breaking asphalt, and even
paving roads.

You can often replace the backhoe bucket with
other tools such as a breaker for breaking and
smashing concrete and rock. There are some loader
buckets that offer a retractable bottom, which
enable it to empty the load more quickly and
efficiently.

The retractable bottom loader buckets are often
times used for grading and scratching off sand.
The front assembly on a backhoe may be either
removable or permanently attached. Often times,
the bucket can be replaced with other tools or
devices. In order to mount different attachments
to the loader, it must be equipped with a tool
coupler. The coupler consists of two hydraulic
cylinders on the end of the arm assembly, which
can expand and retract to allow different tools to
be attached to the unit.

There are several types of backhoe loader brands,
including New Holland, John Deere, and Case. Some
will offer you cabs, while others won’t. The
newer types of backhoe loaders even offer you air
conditioning, radios, and other accessories that
make you feel like you are working with luxury.

Common with excavating jobs, the backhoe can serve
many purposes. It can haul equipment and supplies
in the loader bucket. Another great use is to cover
up dirt when filling in trench lines or covering
up pipe that was just put in the ground. The
backhoe attachment at the rear is ideal for digging
water pipes and sewer pipes.

The best thing about the backhoe loader is the
fact that they are easy to operate. You don’t
need to be a rocket scientist to fully operate this
nifty piece of equipment.

Diesel And Gas Prices

Over the years, the prices of both gas and diesel
have experienced some drastic changes. Many years
ago, the price of gas was around a dollar or a
little more, nothing like it is today. Back then,
gas wasn’t high in price although the demand for
vehicles wasn’t what it is today either.

As the demand for vehicles grew, the demand for
fuel grew as well. Other actions and events have
played into the equation as well, resulting in
the rising costs of fuel. Fuel is something we
all need to run our vehicles, as we wouldn’t be
able to go anywhere without it.

As you may know, a majority of the gas we get at
local gas stations comes from overseas, primarily
the Middle East. Therefore, we have to pay taxes
and such on the gas we use, which pays for the
gas as well as the shipping. If we got our gas
from within the United States, one can’t help
but wonder whether or not the prices would indeed
be lower.

Diesel on the other hand, has always managed
to keep a price lower than gas. Diesel comes
from within the United States, so the prices are
of course going to be lower. The only problem
associated with diesel fuel is locating it, as
many gas stations don’t sell it.

When it comes to the choice between the two,
diesel fuel is obviously cheaper to buy. Gas is
in supply more, which means that you can find
it almost anywhere. If you own a gasoline
vehicle, you obviously don’t want to put diesel
in it. If you own a diesel vehicle, then you
of course wouldn’t want to put gas in it either.

Diesel Engines Forgotten Treasures

There are very few engine configurations that promise
increased fuel economy and power. There are few
engines that offer this in addition to reliability.
Today, those across the ocean are enjoying the
fruits of diesel technology revolution.

Diesels have experienced a great history here in the
United States. In 1980, General Motors modified
their 350ci gas V8 to run on diesel fuel. The result
however, wasn’t that god. These engines offered
better fuel economy but little else. They were
very slow, and not very reliable.

Mercedes Benz on the other hand, had better luck
in the 1980s with an array of vehicles available
with diesel engines. These great vehicles offered
amazing durability although they were rough, noisy,
and smoked quite a bit. Volkswagon offered diesel
as well, although they had a habit for spewing
blue smoke from the tail pipe.

Throughout the 90s, Benz and Volkwagon offered
diesel vehicles in the United States, with each
generation becoming cleaner, smoother, and more
powerful than the last. Overall, they were a
tough sell as they still lacked the horsepower
that many were seeking.

Today, Mercedes, BMW, Jaguar, Volkswagon, Ford,
and many other manufacturers are offering diesels
to many markets throughout the world. To put it
simple, forget everything you know or think you
know about diesel engines in the United States.

These newer engines benefit from hundreds of
technical innovations. There are several diesels
in Europe that offer better acceleration than
their gasoline counter parts. BMW’s 120d has
163bhp, goes 0 – 60 in under 8 seconds, and
achieves 49.6 miles per gallon.

Benz offers the C320 CDI SE that has 224bhp, and
over 360 lb foot of torque. This car gets just
under 48 mpg on the highway, with an acceleration
of 0 – 60 in under 7 seconds. Throughout North
America, you won’t find a gasoline engine that
offers this unique blend of fuel economy and
excellent performance.

The reason why diesels haven’t caught on in
North America comes down to one word – sulfur. We
have too much sulfur in the diesel here in the
United States. This cheap grade of diesel fuel
will run havoc on the more sophisticated diesels
offered overseas and cause an increase in
emissions.

There is hope however, as refiners will soon be
producing what is known as ultra low sulfur
diesel fuel. This will help to reduce the sulfur
content from 500ppm to 15ppm.

Gas Diesel Hybrid War

These days, gasoline prices may be crimping your
your household budget. You may like to reduce
the U.S. dollars that flow to the Middle East for
oil, or perhaps you are motivated by your concern
for the environment, or even the nagging reality
that oil is a depleting resource that shouldn’t
be wasted.

Fuel economy
To put it into prospective, the fuel economy are
the numbers posted on the window sticker of a new
vehicle. Studies have shown that the average
driver only receives 75 percent or so of the
mileage figures that are on the sticker.

You can use these numbers to determine the best
type of vehicle for your purchase. The numbers
will let you know how many MPG your vehicle will
get, so you can compare vehicles and then go
from there.

Hybrid pricing
The gas electric hybrid vehicles are normally
priced higher than non hybrid counterparts,
anywhere from a couple of thousand dollars to
several thousand dollars.

Hybrids can get a lot of miles per gallon,
some averaging around 45 – 55. This is great
for those who want to save money on gas, as
hybrids can go many miles on a full tank of
fuel and they come with extended warranties
as well.

Diesel efficiency
Diesel powered vehicles are yet another fuel
efficient option. Diesels are known for getting
extra mileage from every gallon of fuel. They
offer much better torque than many gasoline
engines. The price differential they have
over gasoline engines are usually much smaller
than that of the hybrid.

With plenty of options available, you’re sure
to find what you need to help conserve fuel.
Before you make a purchase, always remember
to shop around and find what’s best for you.

Gas Trucks Versus Diesel Trucks

If you plan to use your truck like a car, desiring
quick, quiet acceleration and rarely ever haul a
heavy load and don’t plan to it for a long time,
you may want a gasoline engine. Gas engines run
smoother, fuel is easier to find, and gas
engines start easier in cold weather.

If you plan to use your truck for towing, value
good fuel economy and plan to put plenty of miles
on it, you may want a diesel. The price to buy
a diesel truck is really high, although they can
offer you a lot in return.

Below, you’ll find the leading vehicle manufacturers
and what they offer you.

Dodge
The 2500 and 3500 Dodge Ram Heavy Duty trucks are
the newest 3/4 and 1 ton trucks on the road. Back
in 2002, the Ram didn’t have enough power with
the 245 HP 9.5L. Dodge promised more powerful
engines for the 2500/3500 platform and they
delivered on that promise.

The new base engine is the 5.7L gasoline V-8
that’s not only the most powerful engine of the
group at 345 HP but also revives the well known
and historical Hemi name.

Ford
Ford helped push the 3/4 ton and 1 ton truck
market to where it is today when it introduced
it’s international engineered power stroke
diesel back in 1994. Before 1994, these diesels
were poorly built and no match for the big
inch gasoline engines.

From 1994 to 2002, over 70% of super duty Fords
were sold with the optional 7.3L V-8 diesel
engine. This engine helped to put Ford among
the leaders in diesel trucks, as they had more
than they needed to dominate the market.

Chevrolet/GMC
The GM 2500/3500 twins Silverado HD and Sierra
HD both come standard with GM’s 6.0L gas engine
V-8. This engine is ideal for 3/4 ton trucks
where towing isn’t a concern. The upgrades
start with the 8.1L gas V-8 that’s based on
Chevrolet’s venerable big block engine.

Over the years, diesel trucks have proven to be
effecient with mileage, great for towing, and
easy on maintenance. Unlike gas engines, diesel
engines do not have spark plugs, which means
you won’t need to get them tuned up near as
much as gasoline engines.

For those who like to haul heavy loads on a
frequent basis, diesel is the way to go. You
can get quite a few miles per gallon, and
diesel trucks are built to go 250,000 miles or
more before the engine needs to be rebuit,
making them a purchase that is more than worth
your money.

Gas Tractor Versus Diesel Tractor

There are many different reasons as to why a diesel
compact tractor is superior to a gasoline garden
tractor.

First of all, the diesel engine doesn’t have the
parts that normally wear out or give problems. There
are no spark plugs, rotors, points, or distributor
caps like the garden tractor. There is no carburetor
either, that will gum up and be hard to start after
being stored for a long period of time. Diesel engines
can be stored for long periods of time and still start
right up.

Secondly, diesel engines in most tractors are water
cooled. This will allow the engine to run at a more
consistent and cooler temperature, which will extend
the life of the engine. The typical properly
maintained diesel engine can run thousands of hours
without breaking a sweat – and without having to be
rebuilt.

Diesel engines will also make more power. Even though
gasoline tractors may be a little quicker to start
with, they can’t begin to match the power and raw
torque that diesel engines offer.

Another reason why diesel tractors are better than
gas is the available attachments. Most gasoline
tractors are equipped with a belly mower and don’t
normally have a three point hitch. This will severely
limit the type of implements that you can use and
also limit the tractors expandability.

Most blades and scoop implements won’t work with a
gasoline tractor. The drive train will also limit
the type of implement you can use with a garden
tractor. The typical gasoline garden tractor is
belt driven, while a belt drive won’t pull as much
load as a diesel powered tractor. You would probably
not be able to use a box blade or tiller either
with the average gasoline powered tractor.

Gasoline Credit Cards

With gasoline getting more and more expensive, you’ve
probably found yourself wondering what you can do.
Even with the rising costs of gas and fuel, you
still need it to go places. No matter how you look
at it, you are at the mercy of these prices.

If you own two credit cards, changes are that you
will use one of them to pay for your gas. Gas credit
cards are now starting to shine. There are many
individuals who are planning to apply for a gas
card. Most cards are either issued by a leading
credit card company or by a major retailing gas
station.

Along with that, there are some of the gas credit
cards that give you a great deal like having
discounts on gases such as unleaded, premium, and
others. Gas credit cards also give you an
assurance to have more approved gas bonus.

If the credit card is approved, the owner of the
card will not only save money on gas, but he’ll
also get an extra allowance for car equipment and
accessories. Gas cards can also help you save
a bundle on repairs as well.

Keep in mind that there are some things to consider
when you apply for a gas card. When you plan to
apply for a card, the conditions should always be
known. The benefits of the gas credit cards
available should also be studied and researched
in order to compare rates, features, and
benefits.

As the popularity of gas credit cards continue to
increase, so will the offers. Gas cards also
offer a positive effect for gasoline retailers as
well. The customer will also earn additional
incentives as well. If you plan to stick with
one brand of gas, this card can generate some of
the best rewards.

When looking for the best type of gasoline credit
card, the most important thing to do is review
the terms and conditions. The present status
of the card should also be reviewed in order to
avoid a bad credit record.

There are also several gas credit cards that will
give you extra rewards and point systems. What
this means, is that the card holder can earn
cash back on certain purchases. The more points
you get, the bigger product you can receive.

The ideal purpose of applying for gas credit cards
is to help eliminate the gas expenses. The
credit card should help you to have a deal with
gas expenses. Low interest premium cards can be
the best if you can maintain the proper balance.

The best thing about gasoline credit cards is the
fact that you don’t have to pay for them now and
you can just pay later. Just don’t forget to pay
the bill, as you could end up getting a bad credit
rating.

Diesel Fuel Quality

The designs of diesel engines striving to increase
performance have made a lot of advancements in engine
fuel delivery to the combustion chamber. The diesel
engines of today are much quieter, smoother, and
also more powerful. The quality of diesel fuel on
the other hand has not advanced at the same rate as
the improvements of engines.

As soon as it is produced, diesel fuel begins to
deteriorate. Less than 30 days of refining, all
diesel fuel, regardless of the brand, goes through a
natural process called oxidation. This process forms
varnishes and gums in the fuel by causing the
molecules of the fuel to lengthen and start bonding
together.

Now, these components will drop to the bottom of the
fuel tank and form diesel sludge. The fuel will
begin to turn very dark in color, smell bad, and
cause the engine to smoke. The engine starts to
smoke as some of these clusters are small enough to
pass through the engine filtration and on to the
combustion chamber.

As the clusters begin to increase in size, only a
small amount of the molecules will get burned, as
the rest will go out the exhaust as unburned fuel
and smoke.

Its estimated that eight out of every ten diesel
engine failures are directly related to poor quality
and contaminated fuel. The build up of contamination
in the fuel systems and storage tanks can clog
filters, thereby causing the engine to shut down,
and damage to the engine to occur.

The number one reason for bad fuel is due to the
increasing popularity of diesel power and the
accompanying increased demand for more diesel fuel.
Long ago, diesel fuel remained in the refinery
storage tanks long enough to naturally seperate and
begin to settle, allowing the clean fuel to be
drawn apart. Now, with the demand getting higher
than ever, the fuel is never stationary long enough
to settle, and the suspended water and solids are
passed on to the person buying the fuel – you.

The changes in refinery techniques is also a
problem. In order to get more products, diesel
fuel is being refined for more marginal portions of
the crude barrel. This results in a lower grade
product that is thicker and also contains a lot
more contamination.

As time continues to pass and technology gets better
and better, one can only hope that the quality of
diesel fuel improves. As it stands now, the quality
isn’t good at all. If you run diesel fuel, all
you can basically hope for is that the fuel you
are getting isn’t contaminated.